Levi Sean Tippett

Each month, we offer the spotlight to one of our funded researchers to exhibit their research projects in more detail.

The Featured Researcher for February 2022 was Levi Sean Tippett.

Sound Archives for Football Memories: Exploring Innovations in the use of the Scottish Football Museum Archive for Older People


Scotland vs Northern Ireland (Hampden Park), 1960. Photographer: Charlie McBain. Memories Scotland; Scottish Football Museum (McBain Collection).

Reminiscence, or reminiscence therapy as it is often described, is an intervention that uses prompts to encourage discussion and sharing of past events, experiences, and memories (Alzheimer Scotland, 2021; Clark et al, 2017, p.58; Dempsey et al, 2014, p.187; Hawkins et al, 2020, p.34; Ritchie, 2021, p.1; Sporting Memories Foundation Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021; Watchman et al, 2015, p.15; Woods et al, 2005, p.2; Woods et al, 2018, p.2). Over the past ten years or so, the potential for sports reminiscence with older people has become increasingly apparent – with reported outcomes including a range of health and well-being benefits for participants with dementia, mental health issues and those experiencing loneliness/isolation (Clark et al, 2015; 2016; 2017; Coll-Planas et al, 2017; Hawkins, 2020; Schofield and Tolson, 2010; Tumosa, 2015; Watchman et al, 2015).

This PhD intends to build on the growing body of literature (and practical examples) surrounding sports reminiscence. Much of the existing work has utilised a combination of prompts to some avail – such as tangible objects, photographs, and audio-visual materials. However, there remains a largely untapped (and unresearched) resource for sports reminiscence: football-related sound archives. Said archives include football commentaries, radio phone-ins, oral histories, and football chants/songs – all of which could, arguably, be evocative triggers for memories and discussion.

The collaborative nature of working between the University of Stirling and the Scottish Football Museum (SFM) is a key aspect of this project. Not only is the museum enabling access to their archive; the knowledge, expertise, and resources that can be accessed via this partnership are invaluable. That is, with the SFM’s Football Memories project remaining central to the development of sports reminiscence and now including over 200 groups across Scotland (McBrearty, 2021; Scottish Football Museum, 2019). There is also scope to work with other organisations and, potentially, collect additional audio materials on behalf of the museum for this PhD and perhaps beyond.

To summarise, this PhD project aims to accomplish the following:

  • Identify suitable football-related audio archival materials both within and out-with the museum’s collection.
  • Develop an effective approach for using sound archives for sports reminiscence – including technology/resources, information needs, training and facilitation.
  • Evaluate the potential for using audio-specific archival materials for sports reminiscence with older people.

Reference List:

Alzheimer Scotland (2021), Reminiscence therapy, available online at: <https://www.alzscot.org/living-with-dementia/getting-support/accessing-alzheimer-scotland-support/therapeutic-activity/reminiscence-therapy&gt; [Accessed 1st November 2021]

Clark, M., Murphy, C., Jameson-Allen, T. and Wilkins, C. (2015), ‘Sporting memories & the social inclusion of older people experiencing mental health problems’, Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 19 (4), pp.202-11, doi: 10.1108/MHSI-06-2015-0024 [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Clark, M., Murphy, C., Jameson-Allen, T. and Wilkins, C. (2016), ‘Integrated working and intergenerational projects: A study of the use of sporting memories’, Journal of Integrated Care, 24 (5/6), pp.300-12, doi: 10.1108/JICA-10-2016-0039 [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Clark, M., Murphy, C., Jameson-Allen, T. and Wilkins, C. (2017), ‘Sporting memories, dementia care and training staff in care homes’, The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 12 (1), pp. 55-66, available online at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-02-2016-0015> [Accessed 28th December 2021]

Coll-Planas L, Watchman K, Doménech S, McGillivray D, O’Donnell H & Tolson D (2017) ‘Developing evidence for football (soccer) reminiscence interventions with long-term care: a cooperative approach applied in Scotland and Spain’, Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18 (4), pp. 355-360, doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.01.013 [Accessed 8th November 2021]

Dempsey, L., Murphy, K., Cooney, A., Casey, D., O’Shea, E., Declan, D., Jordan, F. and Hunter, A. (2014), ‘Reminiscence in dementia: a concept analysis’, Dementia, 13 (2), pp. 176-92, doi: 10.1177/1471301212456277 [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Hawkins, B., Ramshaw, G., Hooker, T., & Walker, K. (2020), ‘Creating Football Memory Teams: Development and Evaluation of a Football-Themed Reminiscence Therapy Program’, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54 (1), available online at: <https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I1-9824> [Accessed 29th October 2021]

McBrearty, R. (with Craig, R.) (2021), Active Memories, [online video: webinar], available at: <https://plymouth.cloud.panopto.eu/Panopto/Pages/Viewer.aspx?id=ca5947f8-ff26-4a76-be99-ad9500a543f9&gt; [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Ritchie, J. (2021), Scoping Review: Sports Based Intergenerational Reminiscence (SBIR), Unpublished, sent to researcher by author via email in 2021.

Schofield, I. and Tolson, D. (2010), Scottish Football Museum Reminiscence Pilot Project of People With Dementia: A Realistic Evaluation, Glasgow: School of Health Glasgow Caledonian University, ISBN: 9781905866441 [Accessed 8th November 2021]

Scottish Football Museum, 10 Years of the Football Memories Project, available online at: <https://scottishfootballmuseum.org.uk/resources/news/10-years-of-the-football-memories-project/&gt; [Accessed 10th February 2022]

Sporting Memories Foundation Aotearoa New Zealand (2021), The theory behind the therapy, available online at: <https://www.sportingmemories.co.nz/the-theory-behind-the-therapy> [Accessed 1st November 2021]

Tumosa, N. (2015), ‘Baseball Reminiscence Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Veterans’, Federal Practitioner: For the Health Care Professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS, 32 (10), 43–5, available online at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364815/pdf/fp-32-10-43.pdf&gt; [Accessed 4th November 2021]

Watchman, K., Tolson, D., Gallagher, N., Cameron, L. and Doyle, M. (2015), Football Reminiscence for Men with Dementia in a Care Home: a 12-week pilot study in Scotland, Alzheimer Scotland Centre for Policy and Practice; University of the West of Scotland, available online at: <http://www.learningdisabilityanddementia.org/uploads/1/1/5/8/11581920/football_reminiscence_final_report.pdf&gt; [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Woods, B., Spector, A.E., Jones, C.A., Orrell, M. and Davies, S.P. (2018), ‘Reminiscence therapy for dementia’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3) CD001120, available online at: <https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001120.pub2> [Accessed 20th December 2021]

Woods, B., Spector, A.E., Jones, C.A., Orrell, M. and Davies, S.P. (2005), ‘Reminiscence therapy for dementia’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2) CD001120, available online at: <https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001120.pub3> [Accessed 20th December 2021]